Chapters 9, 10, and (some of) 8 Test Review

Instructions:  To calculate your potential grade on the next test, count how many of these you get correct on the first try, divide by 125, and then multiply by 100.  Or, you can count the number correct and multiply by 0.8.  There are a lot of questions here, but remember:  This is going to be a two day test!!!  Keep trying each question until you understand it and get it right!

1. Why can the constellation of Orion be observed on December 21, but not June 21?

Orion has an eccentric orbit around Earth.

Orion has an eccentric orbit around the Sun.

Earth revolves around the Sun.

Earth rotates on its axis.

2. When observed from a location in New York State for one night, the North Star (Polaris) appears to

rise in the east and set in the west.

rise in the west and set in the east.

move southward along an arc-shaped path.

remain stationary in the sky.

3. The Coriolis effect provides evidence that the Earth

rotates.

revolves.

has a tilted axis.

has seasons.

4. The length of an Earth day is determined by the time required for approximately one

Earth rotation.

Earth revolution.

Sun rotation.

Sun revolution.

5. The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by

Earth's rotation.

Earth's revolution.

the Sun's rotation.

the Sun's revolution.

6. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth rotates?

The position of the planets amount the stars change during the year.

The location of the constellations in relationship to Polaris changes from month to month.

The length of the shadow cast by a flagpole at noontime changes from season to season.

The direction of swing of a freely swinging pendulum changes during the day.

7. The length of an Earth year is based on Earth's

rotation of 15°/hr.

revolution of 15°/hr.

rotation of approximately 1°/day.

revolution of approximately 1°/day.

8. Which photograph of star trails was taken by an observer facing directly north of New York State?

Base your answers to questions 9 through 13 on the diagram below, which represents the position of the Sun with respect to Earth's surface at solar noon on certain dates.  The latitude of six locations on the same line of longitude are shown.  The observer is located at 42° N in New York State.  The dates for the Sun at Position A has been deliberately left blank.

9. When the Sun is at position A, which latitude receives the most direct rays of the Sun?

The Tropic of Cancer.

The Tropic of Capricorn.

The Equator.

The Antarctic Circle.

10. When the Sun is at position A, what season is the observer experiencing?

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

11. When the Sun is at position A, what is the date?

September 23

December 21

October 21

January 21

12. When the Sun is at the March 21 position, New York State will usually have

longer days than nights.

12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness.

the lowest annual altitude of the Sun at solar noon.

the highest annual altitude of the Sun at solar noon.

13. At which New York State location could the observer be located?

Plattsburgh

Mount Marcy

New York City

Slide Mountain

14. Summer days in New York State are likely to be hotter than winter days because in summer

Earth is closer to the Sun.

the number of sunspots increases.

Earth's northern axis is tilted towards the Sun.

the Sun gives off more energy.

15. On which day of the year does New York State have the fewest hours of daylight?

March 21

June 21

September 23

December 21

16. A student read in a newspaper that the maximum length of the daylight period for the year in Syracuse, New York, had just been reached.  What was the date of this newspaper?

March 22

June 22

September 22

December 22

17. Toward which general direction would you be facing if you were watching the sunset?

north

south

east

west

18. If the axis of the Earth were not tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, the result would be

a greater number of hours in a day.

a greater number of days in a year.

a reversal of polar and equatorial climates., the result would be

an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations.

19. If the Earth's tilt were to increase from 23.5° to 33.5°, the result would be

shorter days and longer nights at the Equator.

less difference between winter and summer temperatures in New York State.

colder winters and warmer summers in the Northern Hemisphere.

an increase in the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth.

20. The average temperature at Earth's North Pole is colder than the average temperature at the Equator because the Equator

receives more intense insolation.

has more cloud cover.

has a thicker atmosphere.

21. On June 21, some Earth locations have 24 hours of daylight.  These locations are all between the latitudes of

0° and 23.5°N.

23.5°N and 47°N.

47°N and 66.5°N.

66.5°N and 90°N.

Use the diagram below to answer questions 22 through 25.

22. Which location is receiving the most direct insolation?

A

B

C

D

23. Which location has the shortest length of daylight?

A

B

C

D

24. Which location is experiencing the most hours of daylight?

A

B

C

D

25. Providing that locations A and B are in the northern hemisphere, what season is New York State experiencing?

Winter

Summer

Spring

Autumn

Base your answers to questions 26 through 29 on the diagram below, which shows a model of the apparent path and position of the Sun in relation to an observer at four different locations, A, B, C, and D, on Earth's surface on the dates indicated.  The zenith (Z) and the actual position of the Sun in the model at the time of the observation are shown.

26. According to the Sun's actual position shown in the diagrams, the most intense insolation is being received by the observer at location

A

B

C

D

27. Where on Earth's surface is the observer at location C located?

at the Equator

at the North Pole

at the South Pole

in Oswego, New York

28. From sunrise to sunset at location B, the length of the observer's shadow will

increase only.

decrease only.

increase, then decrease.

decrease, then increase.

29. Where on Earth is location A?

The Tropic of Capricorn

The Equator

The Tropic of Cancer

The Arctic Circle

Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on the diagram below, which shows sunlight entering a room through the same window at three different times on the same winter day.

30. The apparent change in the Sun's position shown in the diagram is best explained by

the Sun rotating at a rate of 15° per hour.

Earth rotating at a rate of 15° per hour.

the Sun's axis tilted at an angle of 23°.

Earth's axis tilted at an angle of 23°.

31. This room is located in a building in New York State.  On which side of the building is the window located.?

north

south

east

west

32. The diagram below shows the position of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State.  Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon.

At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at position

A.

B.

C.

D.

33. A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the

Moon's distance from the Earth changes at a predictable rate.

Moon's axis is tilted.

Moon spins on its axis.

Moon revolves around the Earth.

34. The passage of the Moon into Earth's shadow causes a

lunar eclipse.

solar eclipse.

new moon.

full moon.

35. The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole.

Beginning with the Moon at position X, which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during one month?

Base your answer to questions 36 through 39 on the diagram below, which shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole.

36. At which two positions of the Moon is an eclipse of the Sun or Moon possible?

1 and 5

2 and 6

3 and 7

4 and 8

37. Which image correctly represents the Moon at position B, as observed from Earth?

38. At which position would we see a waxing crescent?

2

4

6

8

39. At which position would we see a waning gibbous?

2

4

6

8

40. During a total solar eclipse one might view

sun spots.

the sun's corona.

the sun's solar winds.

nothing of the sun, since it is totally blocked by the moon.

41. As the Sun ages, it will be composed of

more hydrogen and less helium.

more helium and less hydrogen.

more oxygen and less carbon.

less oxygen and more carbon.

42. The probable fate of our Sun is

to expand as a red giant, undergo a nova outburst, and end as a white dwarf.

to shrink to a white dwarf, then eventually expand to a red giant.

become hotter and expand into a blue supergiant.

to become a black hole.

43. What factor from the choices below determines whether a star will evolve into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole?

mass

percentage of helium

percentage of carbon

apparent brightness

44. The explosion of a massive star near the end of its life is known as a

nova

pulsar

super nova

nebula

45. What celestial phenomenon most affects radio communication and other electrical atmospheric changes for us on Earth?

solar eclipses

solar flares

meteorites entering the atmosphere

lunar eclipses

46. The "fuel" of the Sun is

hydrogen.

helium.

oil and various hydrocarbons.

oxygen.

47. Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury

is larger.

is more dense.

is closer to the Sun.

has a more elliptical orbit.

48. Which object orbits Earth in both the geocentric and heliocentric models of our solar system?

the Moon

the Sun

Venus

Polaris

49. The Sun's position in space is best described as the approximate center of

a constellation.

the universe.

the Milky Way galaxy.

our solar system.

50. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model.  Which object is represented by the letter X?

Earth

Sun

Moon

Polaris

51. The Milky Way galaxy is best described as?

a type of solar system.

a constellation visible to everyone on Earth.

a region in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars.

52. Which of the following statements about the Milky Way galaxy is not true?

It is one of many galaxies in the universe.

It is made up of billions of stars.

It is about 4.6 x 109 years old.

It is a spiral-shaped galaxy.

53. The diagram below represents a side view of the Milky Way galaxy

At approximately which position is Earth's solar system located?

A

B

C

D

54. In which list are celestial features correctly shown in order of increasing size?

galaxy solar system universe planet

solar system galaxy planet universe

planet solar system galaxy universe

universe galaxy solar system planet

55. How many stars are in our solar system?

1

1,000,000

1,000,000,000

2

56. How many moons does the Earth have?

0

1

2

3

57. Most scientists believe the Milky Way galaxy is

spherical in shape.

4.6 billion years old.

composed of stars revolving around Earth.

one of billions of galaxies in the universe.

58. The symbols below are used to represent different regions of space.

Which diagram shows the correct relationship between these four regions??

59. Which of the following diagrams correctly shows the life cycle of a star?

60. Most astronomers agree that at the present time the universe is

contracting.

expanding.

stays the same size.

expanding and contracting regularly.

61. The major evidence supporting the "Big Bang" theory is

observations of supernova explosions.

the discovery of black holes.

observations that the Doppler red shift becomes greater as we look at more distant galaxies.

observation that most galaxies are rotating.

62. According to what astronomers have observed to date, the further a galaxy is away from us

the slower it is moving away from us.

the faster it is moving away from us.

the slower it is moving towards us.

the faster it is moving towards us.

63. In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths?

gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light

radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays

w rays, infrared rays, blue light, gamma rays

infrared rays, radio waves, blue light, red light

64. What is the basic difference between ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation?

half-life

temperature

wavelength

wave velocity

65. Radiation with the wavelength 5.0 x 10-5 centimeters is usually visible as which color?

violet

blue

green

yellow

66. Compared to the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation, the wavelength of infrared radiation is

shorter.

longer.

the same.

67. A light-emitting object moving towards an observer will appear to the observer to be emitting waves that are

shorter than normal.

longer than normal.

unchanged.

68. Which of the following stars is least bright?

the Sun

a blue supergiant

a white dwarf

a red star

69. Bernard's Star has a surface temperature of about

300°C

3,000°C

5,000°C

10,000°C

70. In the H-R diagram, 90 percent of all stars fall

in the Red Dwarf region.

in the Supergiant region.

among the White Dwarfs.

on the Main Sequence.

71. Compared to the Sun, Polaris is

hotter and lass luminous.

cooler and more luminous.

the same temperature and larger.

hotter and larger.

72. Compared to other stars, the Sun is

among the hottest stars.

among the smallest stars.

very unique.

about average in all respects.

73. Which star is cooler and many times brighter than Earth's Sun?

Barnard's Star

Betelgeuse

Rigel

Sirius

Use the graph below to answer questions 74 through 79.  The graph represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth..

74. Which location on the graph best represents a star with average brightness and temperature?

A

B

C

D

75. Which location represents where our Sun will be during the last phase of its life?

A

B

C

D

76. Which location on the graph best represents the current location of the Sun?

A

B

C

D

77. Which location on the graph best represents the most luminous stars?

A

B

C

D

78. Which location on the graph best represents the coolest temperature stars?

A

B

C

D

79. Which location on the graph best represents a celestial object that can no longer be called a real star?

A

B

C

D

80. In the diagram below, the spectral lines of hydrogen gas from three galaxies, A, B, and C, are compared to the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory.

What is the best inference that can be made concerning the movement of galaxies A, B, and C?

Galaxy A is moving away from Earth, but galaxies B and C are moving towards the Earth.

Galaxy B is moving away from the Earth, but galaxies A and C are moving towards the Earth.

Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving toward the Earth.

Galaxies A, B, and C are all moving away from the Earth.

81. The more that the spectral lines of a star are shifted to the red end of the spectrum,

the larger it is.

the faster is is rotating.

the hotter it is.

the faster it is moving away from us.

Base your answers on questions 82 and 83 on the diagram below, which shows an inferred sequence in which our solar system formed from a giant interstellar cloud of gas and debris.  Stage A shows the collapse of the gas cloud, stage B shows its flattening, and stage C shows the sequence that led to the formation of the planets.

82. After the young Sun formed, the disk of gas and dust

became spherical in shape.

formed a central bulge.

became larger in diameter.

eventually formed into planets.

83. From stage B to stage C, the young Sun was created?

when gravity caused the center of the cloud to contract.

when gravity caused heavy dust particles to split apart.

by outgassing from the spinning interstellar cloud.

by outgassing from Earth's interior.

84. A major piece of scientific evidence that the universe was created by the Big Bang theory is the fact that wavelengths of light from galaxies moving away from Earth are observed to be

Shorter than normal (a red shift).

Shorter than normal (a blue shift).

Longer than normal (a red shift).

Longer than normal (a blue shift).

Base your answers to questions 85 through 89 on the diagram below.  The diagram represents a plastic hemisphere on which lines have been drawn to show the apparent paths of the Sun on four days at one location in the Northern Hemisphere.  Two of the paths are dated.  The protractor is placed over the north-south line.  X represents the position of a vertical post.

85. Which path of the Sun would result in the longest shadow of the vertical post at solar noon?

A-A'

B-B'

C-C'

D-D'

86. For which path is the altitude of the noon Sun 74°?

A-A'

B-B'

C-C'

D-D'

87. How many degrees does the altitude of the Sun change from December 21 to June 21?

43°

47°

66.5°

74°

88. Which statement best explains the apparent daily motion of the Sun?

The Earth's orbit is an ellipse.

The Earth's shape is an oblate spheroid.

The Earth is closest to the Sun in winter.

The Earth rotates on its axis.

89. What is the latitude of this location?

0°

23.5°N

66.5°N

90°N

Base your answers to questions 90 through 94 on the diagram of the solar system below.

90. If the Earth's distance from the Sun were doubled, the gravitational attraction between the sun and Earth would be

one-half as great.

two times as great.

one-fourth as great.

four times as great.

91. According to Kepler's Harmonic Law of Planetary Motion, the further a planet is located from the Sun, the

shorter its period of rotation.

shorter its period of revolution.

longer its period of rotation.

longer its period of revolution.

92. Which kind of model of the solar system is represented by the diagram?

heliocentric model

geocentric model

sidereal model

lunar model

93. Which is NOT a reason for the demotion of Pluto from a planet to a planetoid?

Its composition has a greater similarity to a comet than a planet.

It is considered to be too small in size.

It is too cold and too far from the Sun.

Its orbit is very eccentric and is tilted compared to the eclectic plain.

94. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the asteroid belt in our solar system?

It is located between Mars and Jupiter, separating the terrestrial planets from the Jovian planets.

It is the remnants of a planet that never formed due to conflicting forces of gravity caused by Jupiter and the Sun.

It is used to infer the chemical composition of the interior of Earth and the other terrestrial planets.

It is called the Kuiper belt and is responsible for all of the comets in our solar system.

Base your answers to questions 95 through 97 on the diagram below.  The diagram shows the apparent paths of the Sun at the beginning of each season for an observer at a location in New York State.

95. Which day of the year is represented when the Sun is at solar noon for the day located at position C?

June 21

August 23

September 23

December 21

96. Which day of the year is represented when the Sun is at solar noon for the day located at position A?

June 21

August 23

September 23

December 21

97. Which day of the year is represented when the Sun is at solar noon for the day located at position B?

June 21

August 23

September 23

December 21

Base your answer to questions 98 through 102 on the diagram below, which represents the elliptical orbit of a planet traveling around a star.   Points A, B, B, C, and D are four positions of this planet in its orbit.

98. What is the approximate eccentricity of this planet's orbit?

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

99. At which location would the star have the greatest apparent size to an observer on the planet shown?

A

B

C

D

100. The orbiting motion of the planet around the star is know as

rotation.

inclination.

declination.

revolution.

101. As the planet travels around the star in a complete orbit starting from location A, the orbital velocity of the planet will

decrease, then increase.

increase, then decrease.

continue to increase.

.remain the same.

102. At which location would the gravitational force between the star and the planet be the least?

A

B

C

.D

Use the diagram below to answer questions 103 through 110.  This diagram shows the Earth in four different locations as it orbits the Sun.

103. Which of the following dates is it most likely to be when the Earth is in Position A in its orbit around the Sun?

December 21

March 21

June 21

September 23

104. Which of the following dates is it most likely to be when the Earth is in Position B in its orbit around the Sun?

December 21

March 21

June 21

September 23

105. Which of the following dates is it most likely to be when the Earth is in Position C in its orbit around the Sun?

December 21

March 21

June 21

September 23

106. Which of the following dates is it most likely to be when the Earth is in Position D in its orbit around the Sun?

December 21

March 21

June 21

September 23

107. When the Earth is at Position A in its orbit, the Earth is at its

perihelion.

aphelion.

perigee.

apogee.

108. When the Earth is at Position C in its orbit, the Earth is at its

perihelion.

aphelion.

perigee.

apogee.

109. At which location would the Earth move the fastest in its orbit?

A

B

C

D

110. At which location would the Earth experience the least gravity

A

B

C

D

111. The image below shows a planet in its orbit around its star.  One of the two foci represents the star.

What is the eccentricity of this planet's orbit?

0.030

0.158

0.253

3.95

Base your answers to questions 112 through 124 on the diagram below, which shows four planets, A, B, C, and D, in their orbits around their star.  The star is shown as one of the two foci, and the other focus is labeled f.  There are four locations, 1, 2, 3, and 4, within the orbit of planet A shown on the diagram.

112. What is the eccentricity of the orbit for planet A?

2.000

1.700

0.578

.0.500

113. What is the eccentricity of the orbit for planet B?

3.529

0.353

0.283

.0.176

114. What is the eccentricity of the orbit for planet C?

0.246

0.459

4.059

.-0.521

115. What is the eccentricity of the orbit for planet D?

0.615

1.615

0.179

.0.559

116. One of the two foci is the star.  What is the second focus?

Planet A.

A non-existent location that is used to represent where the forces of gravity and inertia are balanced.

A star that is either outside the solar system or an invisible star in the center of the solar system.

.A black hole in the center of our solar system, but a small distance away from the star.

117. Which planet has the fastest average orbital velocity?

A

B

C

.D

118. Which planet has the slowest average orbital velocity?

A

B

C

.D

119. Which planet has the shortest orbital period?

A

B

C

.D

120. Which planet has the longest orbital period?

A

B

C

.D

121. At which point in its orbit will planet A have the greatest velocity?

1

2

3

4

122. At which point in its orbit will planet A move the slowest?

1

2

3

4

123. At which point in its orbit will the force of gravity be the greatest between planet A and the star?

1

2

3

4

124. At which point in its orbit will the force of gravity be the weakest between planet A and the star?

1

2

3

4

125. A orbit of a planet (Planet X) in a distant solar system has a major axis with the distance of 2965.1 million km.  The length between foci is estimated to be close to 159.8 million km.  Which planet in our solar system has the most similar eccentricity to Planet X?

Earth

The Earth's Moon

Jupiter

Saturn